Copyright © by the National Institute of Transport.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except for short extracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review, or discourse with an acknowledgement.

Journal of Logistics, Management and Engineering Sciences [ISSN 1821-9349 (Print) & [ISSN 2961-6239 (Online)] is published bi-annually, January to July (Issue One (1) and July to December (Issue Two (2) by the National Institute of Transport, P.O. Box 705, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.